TMS’s strong appropriability is mainly drawn from the legal or institutional framework under which it operates. In October 2010, the International Transfer Matching System (ITMS) developed by FIFA TMS became mandatory for Member Associations and clubs worldwide to use when completing an international professional player transfer. This effectively locked out anyone seeking to create a similar system as it would be of little or no value.
An innovation is the implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service), or process, a new marketing method, or a new organisational method in business practices, workplace organisation or external relations. The TMS perfectly fits this definition from the Oslo Manual: Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data, 3rd Edition.